By (author): Armand Garnet Ruffo

A treaty is a contract. A treaty is enduring. A treaty is an act of faith. A treaty at its best is justice. It is a document and an undertaking. It is connected to place, people and self. It is built on the past, but it also indicates how the future may unfold. Armand Garnet Ruffo’s TREATY # is all of these. In this far-ranging work, Ruffo documents his observations on life &ndash and in the process, his own life &ndash as he sets out to restructure relationships and address obligations nation-to-nation, human to human, human to nature. Now, he undertakes a new phase in its restoration. He has written his TREATY # like a palimpsest over past representations of Indigenous bodies and beliefs, built powerful connections to his predecessors, and discovered new ways to bear witness and build a place for them, and all of us, in his poems. This is a major new work from an important, original voice.


Armand Garnet Ruffo

Armand Garnet Ruffo was born in Chapleau, northern Ontario, and is a band member of the Chapleau (Fox Lake) Cree First Nation. A recipient of a Honourary Life Membership Award from the League of Canadian Poets, he is recognized as a major contributor to both contemporary Indigenous literature and Indigenous literary scholarship in Canada. His publications include Norval Morrisseau: Man Changing Into Thunderbird (2014) and Treaty # (2019), both finalists for Governor General’s Literary Awards. In 2020, he was awarded the Latner Writers’ Trust Poetry Prize in recognition of his work. Ruffo teaches at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario.


“Ruffo’s Treaty # relentlessly underscores the horrors that a lax and empty use of verbiage can produce.” – Catherine Owen, Marrow Reviews


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100 Pages
9.00in * 6.00in * .40in


April 02, 2019



Book Subjects:

POETRY / American / Native American



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